Monitoring and Evaluation

The final step in the development of a sustainable freight transport strategy is to monitor and evaluate performance and progress. This would entail collecting, monitoring and analysing data during strategy implementation to evaluate progress and impact. A monitoring and evaluation data system should be:

Comprehensive Consistent Cost effective Transparent Accurate Accessible Relevant


When considering the indicators required for monitoring and assessing progress towards the desired goals, a balance between convenience and comprehensiveness needs to be achieved. A smaller set of indicators, using easily available data, is more convenient to collect and analyse but may overlook important sustainability-related impacts. A larger set of indicators may provide a comprehensive assessment, but data collection and processing could be extremely expensive which may undermine the monitoring process.

As noted under step 3 on Targets and Indicators, it is extremely important to define, early in the planning process, the indicators required for monitoring and to involve multiple stakeholders for effective and efficient data collection and double counting avoidance. If indicators are not selected carefully, they can consume extensive resources and undermine the usefulness and value of the data generated. International and development organisations can play an important role in strengthening the capacity to collect, analyse, and manage data and indicators. 

Specific methodologies and processes need to be established to quantify each of the KPIs and indicators identified for monitoring. Examples of indicators used for Monitoring, Reporting, Verification (MRV) various Sustainable Freight Transport Strategies are compiled in the table below.

Following the quantification of indicators, a comparison is made between the estimated values and specific pre-established thresholds. If the value of the indicators quantified during the monitoring process is lower than the establishged threshold (or does not reach its anticipated level), then the action has failed to meet its set objective. Alternatively, the measures are believed to be consistent with the objective, if the value of the quantified indicators, meets the threshold. By routinely assessing the performance of the freight transport sector in terms of its ability to balance the various objectives under the three dimensions of sustainability i.e. economic, social, and environmental, gaps and needs can be assessed in a systematic and consistent manner and corrections/adjustments can be introduced in a timely manner.

  Examples of Indicators selected for monitoring and evaluation Sustainable Freight Transport Strategies




Objectives/ Targets

Monitor, Report, Verify (MRV) Indicators

California Sustainable Freight Action Plan


Utilise a partnership of federal, State, regional, local, community, and industry stakeholders to move freight in California on a modern, safe, integrated, and resilient system that continues to support California’s economy, jobs, and healthy, liveable communities.

Transporting freight reliably and efficiently by zero-emission equipment everywhere feasible, and near-zero emission equipment powered by clean, low-carbon renewable fuels everywhere else.

  1. System Efficiency Target: Improve freight system efficiency 25% by increasing the value of goods and services produced from the freight sector, relative to the amount of carbon that it produces by 2030.
  2. Transition to Zero Emission Technology Target: Deploy over 100,000 freight transport vehicles and equipment capable of zero emission operation and maximize near-zero emission freight vehicles and equipment powered by renewable energy by 2030.
  3. Increased Competitiveness and Economic Growth Targets: Establish a target or targets for increased state competitiveness and future economic growth within the freight and goods movement industry.
  1. CO2/GDP
  2. Share of zero emission freight vehicles (ZEVs)

London Freight Plan


“…the safe, reliable and efficient movement of freight and servicing trips to, from, within and, where appropriate, through London to support London’s economy, in balance with the needs of other transport users, the environment and Londoners’ quality of life”

  1. Ensure London’s transport networks allow for the efficient and reliable handling and distribution of freight and the provision of servicing to support London’s economy.
  2. Minimise the adverse environmental impact of freight transport and servicing in London.
  3. Minimise the impact of congestion on the carriage of goods and provision of servicing.
  4. Foster a progressive shift of freight from road to more sustainable modes such as rail and water, where this is economical and practicable.
  1. Total number of commercial vehicle parking-related Penalty Charge Notices (PCNs) per million freight vehicle kilometres.
  2. Freight fly-tipping incidents.
  3. Overall number of people killed or seriously injured in collisions involving freight vehicles. 
  4. Number of thefts linked to freight activities on London roads.
  5. Freight Operator Recognition Scheme membership at each level.

Smartway Initiative

Shippers, carriers, freight transport/logistics service providers

Help companies advance supply chain sustainability by measuring, benchmarking, and fostering freight transportation efficiency.

  1. Catalyse change across the entire freight supply chain.
  2. Serve as global role model for other nations – including regions where extensive freight transport-related GHG emissions growth is projected.
  3. Use SmartWay brand to identify green freight leadership.
  4. Act as a clearinghouse for information sharing and exchange on greener goods movement.
  1. Total miles driven.
  2. Revenue miles versus empty miles.
  3. Road speed and operational characteristics.
  4. Total fuel consumed.
  5. Alternative fuel (e.g., biodiesel, natural gas) consumed.
  6. Number of trucks by class.
  7. Fuel and payload by truck class.
  8. Truck model engine year.
  9. Payloads
  10. Trailer capacity volume and utilisation
  11. Average idle-hours per truck.
  12. Ton-miles driven.
  13. Type of cargo by commodity group.

East West Transport Corridor


  1. In 2030, the solutions tried and tested in the Green Corridors are becoming the standard for freight transport.
  2. Green Corridors are top of the line as regards innovative technology, efficient and sustainable logistics solutions, high-quality performance and a sound economy.
  3. Eco-labelling of transport services is standard in the Green Corridors network.
  4. Standardised European regulations on the infrastructure, terminals and services of a Green Corridor are established.
  5. A decoupling between freight transport and traffic has been achieved, with continued economic growth.
  1. Sustainable logistics solutions with documented reductions of environmental and climate impact, high safety, high quality, and strong efficiency.
  2. Integrated logistics concepts with optimal utilisation of all transport modes, so-called co-modality.
  3. Harmonised regulations with openness for all actors,
  4. Concentration of national and international freight traffic on relatively long transport routes.
  5. Efficient and strategically located trans-shipment points, as well as an adapted, supportive infrastructure.
  6. A platform for development and demonstration of innovative logistics solutions, including information systems, collaborative models, and technology.
  1. Total cargo volumes.
  2. Corridor capacity.
  3. Online delivery.
  4. Total energy use.
  5. GHG emissions.
  6. Engine standards.
  7. Number of alternative fuels filling stations.
  8. ISO 9001 dangerous goods.
  9. ISO 31 000.
  10. ISO 39 000.
  11. Safe truck parking.
  12. Common safety rating.
  13. Fenced terminals.